Tashkent – historical monuments


Tashkent – historical monuments

Ensemble Sheikhantaur

Ensemble Sheikhantaur

The territory of the Sheikhantaur ensemble is located between Abdulla Qadiri and Alisher Navoi streets. The ensemble consists of three mausoleums: the mausoleum of Sheikh Khovendi At-Takhur, the mausoleum of Kaldyrgach-biy and the mausoleum of Yunus-Khan.

Sheikhantaur was born at the end of the 13th century into a Khodja family in the mountain village of Bogustan (now there is the Charvak reservoir). His father, Sheikh Omar, was a descendant of the second righteous caliph, Omar. The people believed that Sheikh Omar knew how to work miracles and command the elements. The highest grace seemed to have passed to the son. Young Sheikhantaur learned Sufi truths. According to biographers, the Tashkent Sufi was particularly struck then by the truth: "High spiritual qualities and knowledge in the sciences are directly proportional to the patience and meekness of a sage in relation to the rudeness of the ignorant."

The Sheikh lived and preached in Tashkent and died between 1355-1360. According to legend, the mausoleum over his grave was built on the initiative of Amir Temur himself. This is a two-chambered low structure under two domes of different heights.

The building acquired its present appearance after numerous restorations and alterations at the beginning of the 19th century. There are three gravestones inside, one under a large dome and two under a small one. The only one of 48 saurs (planted by Alexander the Great), Iskander's saur, has been preserved in the mausoleum. The petrified coniferous tree is located inside the mausoleum right next to the majestic tombstone of the Sheikh.

It is worth noting that many outstanding Tashkent residents belonged to the Sheikhantaura clan, including the famous Timurid preacher Ubaidulla Khoja Akhror (1404-1490) and the independent ruler of Tashkent in the second half of the 18th century, Yunus-Hajj.

Another mausoleum, Mazar Kaldyrgach-biya, has survived to this day near the Sheikhantaur mausoleum. With the characteristic shape of the pyramidal dome, this architectural monument of the 15th century differs sharply from other buildings of the complex and resembles the mazars of the Kazakh steppes. Indeed, under the arches of this mausoleum lies the ashes of the famous statesman Tole-biy (Kazakh by birth). Together with the people of Tashkent, Tole-biy managed to expel the Dzhangar-Kalmyk invader from the land of Central Asia. Tole-biy appointed Yunus-haja, the Sheikhantaur khokim, who became the independent ruler of the Tashkent state, as his confidant in Tashkent.

Another surviving mausoleum of the complex of the late 15th century is the mausoleum of Yunus Khan, the grandfather of the great Babur. The building has been restored many times. This is a rare type of khanaka (Sufi monastery), T-shaped with a high revak along the top of the facade.

Suzuk-ota complex

Suzuk-ota complex

The architectural complex is dedicated to the noble mentor of all artisans of Suzuk-ota.

Suzuk-ota, who received the name Mustafokul from birth, was born in 1140 in Turkestan in the village of Korachuk. He was the youngest son of the only daughter of Ahmad Yassawi. Grandfather, rocking his little grandson on his knees, often said: "My dear, beloved (suzugim), welcome!", So those around him began to call the boy Suzuk.

This man became famous in the entire district of the city and even beyond its borders for his talents, ability to unite people, beneficent deeds, which caused great respect among local residents.

Upon reaching adulthood, he settled in a deserted, hilly and abandoned area and began to improve it. Having invited Koran readers, craftsmen, relatives and friends from his small homeland, he built houses, gave everyone shelter, introduced science and craft to the broad masses. He also trained young people in agriculture, handicrafts and other professions. Suzuk-ota was the mentor of hundreds of craftsmen and artisans. The respected mentor died in 1217. And his mahalla became famous as a "mahalla of masters."

The complex, built in 1392 during the reign of Amir Temur, consists of a mosque and a mausoleum. In 2019, a major reconstruction of this religious building took place. The mausoleum and the mosque have been reconstructed, an area of almost 8 hectares has been landscaped. One of the buildings of the complex houses a museum, a library and a gathering of citizens. On both sides of the complex there are 30 two-storey cottages for artisans. Workshops and shops will be opened on the ground floor of the cottages.

Khazrati-Imam complex

Khazrati-Imam complex

One of the spiritual monuments is the Khazrati-Imam ensemble (among the people of Khast-Imam). The square is located in the hinterland of the old city, which survived the strongest earthquake in 1966. The complex was built near the burial place of the first Tashkent imam – Kaffal ash-Shashi, who was a scientist and religious figure.

The complex consists of the Tilla Sheikh Mosque, the Abu Bakr Kaffal Shashi Mausoleum, the Barak Khan Madrasah and the Imam al-Bukhari Islamic Institute.

A library is open here for visitors, where a large amount of oriental handwritten literature is concentrated. Also here, separately, the Koran of the third Caliph Uthman is kept. Written in the 7th century, he managed to make a considerable journey across many countries. This ancient holy book is quite large and includes 353 parchment sheets. The book migrated to Uzbekistan during the time of Amir Timur.

The Khast-Imam complex is especially beautiful at night, when the territory is illuminated by lanterns and the illusion of an oriental fairy tale is created.

Madrasah of Barak Khan

Madrasah of Barak Khan

Built in the 16th century as an Islamic school, the Barak Khan madrasah was erected on the initiative of Nauruz Ahmed Khan (grandson of Mirzo Ulugbek), who was popularly called Barak Khan, which means "lucky".

There are several mausoleums on the territory of the madrasah.

One belongs to Suyunchkhoja Khan, who was the first ruler of Tashkent from the Sheibanid dynasty, and the second mausoleum was erected over the burial place of Barak Khan himself, who was later reburied in Samarkand.

Muyi Muborak Madrasah

Muyi Muborak Madrasah

The Muyi Muborak madrasah is one of the most ancient buildings of the Khazret-Imam historical and religious complex.

The building of the madrasah dates back to the 16th century. Subsequently, it was rebuilt several times. Once there was a hospitable house of dervishes, and in 1857 the first library was created, which later turned into one of the richest book collections in the Islamic world.

In 2008, next to the building of the madrasah, a new library building was built and part of the book fund was transferred to specially designated premises. These are 20 thousand books. Among them: about 3 thousand manuscripts, 10 thousand lithographs, unique samples of calligraphy and translations of the Koran in more than 30 languages.

The most important value is the famous Koran of Caliph Osman, which is considered the oldest in the world and is a monument of world importance. The ancient manuscript dates from 644-648. The Quran weighs about 35 kilograms and is 353 pages long. Over the long centuries of its history, it has experienced many trials: for centuries it was kept in the treasuries of the caliphs of Medina, Damascus and Baghdad, disappeared from the field of view of scientists and religious leaders in order to reappear in one point or another of the continent, even visited St. Petersburg and Ufa. In 1997, the Qur'an of Uthman was declared historical

According to legend, a hair from the head of the Prophet Muhammad, which is a sacred relic of Muslims, is also kept in the madrasah. It is for this madrasah that the name "Muyi Muborak" is called, which means "hair of the prophet".

Kukeldash Madrasah

Kukeldash Madrasah

One of the largest Islamic landmarks – Kukeldash madrasah is located in the area of Chorsu square. This madrasah has long become a symbol of the old part of the capital. In the 10th century, one of the three city gates was located here.

The madrasah was built in the 16th century. during the reign of the Sheibanids. The construction was supervised by the chief vizier, nicknamed "kukaldosh", translated from the Turkic "milk brother" (hence the unusual name of madrasah.). He was close to the Tashkent rulers Barak Khan and Dervish Khan.

Many legends are associated with the activity of the madrasah. Long-livers of the region say that earlier public executions were carried out on the territory of the madrasah. Unfaithful wives were thrown from the highest minaret in order to teach a lesson and shame the local population. According to another legend, a spreading pistachio tree once grew here, it was considered sacred, as it grew on one of the domes of the madrasah.

On one of the inner walls of the madrasah there is an inscription: "Death is inevitable, but the work done by a person remains forever."

Today the Kukeldash madrasah is one of the largest architectural monuments of the capital. The high-rise building of baked bricks was built on the principle of Muslim spiritual institutions: a large courtyard surrounded by prayer rooms and study rooms. The facade is represented by an entrance portal (peshtak) with a height of almost 20 m. There are also two-tier carved balconies with traditional corner towers. On the windows of the building, sun-protection bars are used, where an engraving is visible using the name of Allah and his Prophet Muhammad, sacred to any believer.

Throughout the history of its existence, the building of the madrasah has witnessed many events. It was destroyed several times. It once housed a caravanserai. In the XIX century. this building served as the residence of the Kokand khans. From here, the Tashkent rebels were fired from cannons.

The Kukeldash madrasah was completely restored by the efforts of the Tashkent masters and the status of a spiritual institution was returned to it. Here and today you can hear the voices of muezzins calling Muslims to prayer, various religious services are performed, and classes for students are held in classrooms (hujras).

Ruins of Aktepa settlement

Ruins of Aktepa settlement

In the center of the city, in the Yunusabad region, there is an ancient archeological monument - the ruins of the Aktepa settlement.

Such a small hill seems unusual and wildly attractive. This is not just a hill, but a unique fortified manor of a large palace of the pre-Arab period. Presumably it was the summer residence of Tudun Chach. Several generations of Turkic governors, who were subordinate to the rulers of the Chach state, lived in this palace. According to excavations, the castle was built in the 5th century. AD on a hill, using an ancient platform made of raw bricks (pakhsy).

The total area of the archaeological site was about 100 hectares. In the southern part of the settlement, there are the ruins of a fortress castle (keshka) in the form of a high hill with steep slopes 22-28 m high, to which an unfortified settlement adjoined.

The palace, 86x180 m in size, is oriented approximately from north to south and is separated from the village by a ravine of considerable depth, which served as a moat. It consisted of a two-story building with a wide staircase. The first floor had dimensions of 80x80 m, the second floor – 50x50 m.On the inside, both floors were encircled by a long gallery corridor 2 m wide and 2.3 m high.At the corners of the upper corridor there were round domed towers with rooms. The interior of the building consisted of long, narrow rooms with domed roofs that were connected by a system of corridors.

In the first quarter of the 7th century, the estate was rebuilt. The narrow premises were covered with earth, thereby turning the building into a solid pedestal, on which new buildings were erected. Four corner towers were fortified, and a 22x22 m castle was erected in the southwestern part of the estate. It had the shape of a multi-tiered pyramid with a donjon tower and had four defensive tiers. Judging by the preserved part of the building, it was also two-story. Its lower floor was occupied by arched rooms, and the owner lived on the upper floor.

In the northern part of the palace, 10 rooms were discovered that formed the temple complex. Religious buildings were gradually formed around the domed mausoleum. Adjacent to it was a two-room sanctuary, in one of the rooms of which there was an altar of fire, and the other served as a ceremonial hall. Memorial sacrifices were performed in separate rooms and the priest lived.

In the eastern part of the fortress there were 9 elongated two-storey buildings of the utility part. The first floor mainly served as storage rooms where food supplies were stored. The second floor served as the dwelling of the servants and the garrison of the guards. In addition, a separate room in the backyard was occupied by a wine press.

There were no fences or signs around the ruins before. Absolutely everyone could go there. Over the past few years, it was fenced off, and an information board was hung near the entrance.

Ming Urik Site Museum

Ming Urik Site Museum

On one of the central streets there is a unique hill called Ming Urik (Thousand Apricots).

This hill is the ruins of an ancient fortress that guarded the capital of the Turkic Kaganate Chach. According to archaeological research, the city existed at the beginning of the 1st century. AD before the arrival of the Arabs in Central Asia. As scientists assume, the complex served as an ancient residence of the Turkic rulers. The layout of the premises and buildings indicates that ancient pagan temples were located here, with open altars for fire.

The capital city of the ancient kaganate existed until the 4th century. AD According to Chinese sources, the territory of modern Tashkent was part of the state of Kangyui. After the collapse of the Kangyui state, this region at the beginning of the 4th century turned into an independent state.

The unique settlements Ming Urik, Kanka, Shashtepa are vivid evidence of how the historical urbanization of this territory took place. Today, the Ming Urik settlement and the museum located on its territory are under state protection and are objects of study of the history of Tashkent.

Tashkent – monuments of our time
Tashkent – museums and theaters
Tashkent – mosques, churches
Tashkent – parks, squares, gardens
Samarkand – the crossroads of cultures
Bukhara – ancient and eternal
Khiva – a time portal to the past
Khorezm – country of a thousand fortresses

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